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By Lower S. K.

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Extra resources for Acid-base equilibria of the aquatic environment(en)(32s)

Example text

Weak monoprotic acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Pure acid in water . . . . . . . . . . Calculations on mixtures of acids . . . . . . Mixture of an acid and its conjugate base . . . General case of a weak acid/base system, using [SID] Example calculations involving conjugate species . Diprotic acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Buffer solutions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Titrations .

Titration curve for a polyprotic acid, H3 PO4 . . . Equilibrium fraction diagram for a monoprotic acid. . Log-C vs pH diagram for a 10−3 M acetic acid solution. Log-C diagram for a diprotic acid . . . . . . . Log-C diagram for the phosphoric acid system . . . Origin of acid rain . . . . . . . . . . . 23 23 24 24 26 27 28 30 7 8 9 10 11 12 i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Leveling effect . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Dissociation of weak acids . Titration . . . . . Strong bases . . . . . Proton free energy and pH . . . 1 Strong acids and bases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 The strong ion difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weak monoprotic acids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Pure acid in water . . . . . .

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Acid-base equilibria of the aquatic environment(en)(32s) by Lower S. K.


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