Read e-book online A Nation Collapses: The Italian Surrender of September 1943 PDF

By Elena Agarossi, Harvey Fergusson II

ISBN-10: 0511528965

ISBN-13: 9780511528965

ISBN-10: 0521025370

ISBN-13: 9780521025379

ISBN-10: 0521591996

ISBN-13: 9780521591997

Drawing on as a rule unpublished files, A country Collapses revises the conventional knowing of a serious second within the background of worldwide struggle II: the cave in of the Italian fascist regime and Italy's unconditional give up in September 1943. The e-book argues that, in the course of their mystery negotiations sooner than the overthrow of Mussolini in July 1943, either Italy and Britain negotiated in undesirable religion and with loads of duplicity. The ensuing misunderstandings and misjudgments led to an unexpectedly lengthy and brutal crusade of conquest following Italy's quit.

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3. The Adoption of the Unconditional Surrender Principle at the Casablanca Conference The determining role of the Foreign Office in deciding policy on Italy was sanctioned by the adoption of the unconditional surrender principle formulated by Roosevelt and Churchill at the Casablanca Conference, which was held from January 12 to 26, 1943, and then approved by Stalin. Italy's surrender constituted the first application of this principle that was to guide Allied policy until the end of the war. The adoption of the unconditional surrender principle was proclaimed by Roosevelt in an almost casual way at a press conference that took place at the end of the meeting.

This attitude was unrealistic because, as has already been noted, "a surrender agreement is essentially a political bargain. S. government attempted to show to the American public that its objectives were purely military and had nothing to do with European political questions. When the problem of the German surrender came up, Roosevelt adopted the same position he had taken in the Italian and French cases. In summing up a conversation he had with Roosevelt in September 1944, Robert Murphy wrote: The President also expressed the view that it might be better for the Allies in concluding hostilities with the Germans to deal only with local commanders and authorities, rather than with a central authority and the German high command.

There were conflicting positions both among the military and within the State Department. 26 With some exceptions, the American military was favorable to the extension of the unconditional surrender principle to Italy. The earliest draft of Italy's surrender has never been published or examined by historians. Prepared in May 1942 by General George V. Strong and reviewed in September 1942 by the State Department, it regarded unconditional surrender as a purely military act, involving an agreement between the commander in chief of the Italian armed forces and that of the United Nations.

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A Nation Collapses: The Italian Surrender of September 1943 by Elena Agarossi, Harvey Fergusson II


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